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Paraphrasing

本文于 2019-09-06 05:15 更新,已是最新版。

PARAPHRASING

Paraphrasing involves changing a text so that it is quite different from the source, while retaining the meaning. This skill is important in several areas of academic work, but this unit focuses on using paraphrasing in note-making and summary writing. Effective paraphrasing is vital in academic writing to avoid the risk of plagiarism.
1.       Although paraphrasing techniques are used in summary writing, paraphrasing does not aim to shorten the length of a text, merely to restate it.

 For example:
Evidence of a lost civilisation has been found off the coast of Chinacould be paraphrased:
Remains of an ancient society have been discovered in the sea near China.
2.       A good paraphrase is significantly different from the wording of the original, without altering the meaning at all.
Read the text below and then decide which is the better paraphrase, (a) or (b).
Ancient Egypt collapsed in about 2180 BC. Studies conducted of the mud from the River Nile showed that at this time the mountainous regions which feed the Nile suffered from a prolonged drought. This would have had a devastating effect on the ability of Egyptian society to feed itself.
a)      The sudden ending of Egyptian civilisation over 4,000 years ago was probably caused by changes in the weather in the region to the south. Without the regular river flooding there would not have been enough food.
b)       Research into deposits of the Egyptian Nile indicate that a long dry period in the mountains at the river’s source may have led to a lack of water for irrigation around 2180 BC, which was when the collapse of Egyptian society began.
3.        Techniquesa)      Changing vocabulary:studies > researchsociety > civilisation mud > deposits
NB Not all words and phrases can be paraphrased. For example, economics, socialism or global warming have no effective synonyms.
b)       Changing word class:Egypt (n.) > Egyptian (adj.) mountainous regions (adj. +n.) > in the mountains (n.)

c)        Changing word order:Ancient Egypt collapsed > the collapse of Egyptian society began

          4.     Find synonyms for the words in italics.a) The growth of the car industry parallels the development of modern capitalism. Example:The rise of the automobile industry matches the progress of contemporary capitalism.
b) It began in France and Germany, but took off in the United States.
_______________________________________________________________a)      There Henry Ford adapted the moving production line from the Chicago meat industry to motor manufacturing, thus inventing mass production.____________________________________________________________________
5.        Change the word class of the words in italics, and then rewrite the sentences.
a)      In the 1920s Alfred Sloan’s management theories helped General Motors to become the world’s dominant car company. Example: In the 1920s, with help from the managerial theories of Alfred Sloan, General Motors dominated the world’s car companies.Example:In the 1920s, with help from the managerial theories of Alfred Sloan, General Motors dominated the world’s car companies.
b)      After the Second World War the industry developed ‘planned obsolescence’, whereby frequent model changes encouraged customers to buy new cars more often than they needed to.
c)       Later, from the 1970s, environmentalists began to criticise the industry for producing inefficient models which used too much fuel, contributing to global warming.
6.       Change the word order of the following sentences (other changes may be needed).a.        At this time, trades unions became increasingly militant in defence of their members’ jobs.Example:At this time increasingly militant trades unions defended their members’ jobs.
b)      Today the industry owns some of the strongest brands in the world.___________________________________________________________________c)       However, many major car companies_____________________________________________________________________

7.       Combine all these techniques to paraphrase the paragraph as fully as possible.
         FOUR WHEELS GOODThe growth of the car industry parallels the development of modern capitalism. It began in France and Germany, but took off in the United States. There Henry Ford adapted the moving production line from the Chicago meat industry to motor manufacturing, thus inventing mass production. In the 1920s Alfred Sloan’s management theories helped General Motors to become the world’s dominant car company. After the Second World War the industry developed ‘planned obsolescence’, whereby frequent model changes encouraged customers to buy new cars more often than they needed to. Later, from the 1970s, environmentalists began to criticise the industry for producing inefficient models which used too much fuel, contributing to global warming. At this time, trades unions became increasingly militant in defence of their members’ jobs. Today the industry owns some of the strongest brands in the world. However, many major car companies struggle with stagnant markets and falling profits.
8.               USE THE SAME TECHNIQUES TO PARAPHRASE THE FOLLOWING TEXT.
 Before the last century no humans had visited Antarctica, and even today the vast continent has a winter population of fewer than 200 people. However, a recent report from a New Zealand government agency outlines the scale of the pollution problem in the ice and snow. Although untouched compared with other regions in the world, the bitter cold of Antarctica means that the normal process of decay is prevented. As a result some research stations are surrounded by the rubbish of nearly 60 years’ operations. Despite popular belief, the polar continent is really a desert, with less precipitation than the Sahara. In the past, snowfall slowly covered the waste left behind, like beer cans or dead ponies, but now, possibly due to global warming, the ice is thinning and these are being exposed. Over 10 years ago the countries using Antarctica agreed a treaty on waste disposal, under which everything is to be taken home, and this is slowly improving the situation. However, the scientists do not want everything removed. The remains of very early expeditions at the beginning of the twentieth century have acquired historical value and will be preserved.

From:

http://advancedworkshopii.blogspot.com/2016/09/paraphrasing-paraphrasinginvolves.html

Answers:

https://wenku.baidu.com/view/365b164a767f5acfa1c7cd54.html

paraphrasing

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